Pakistan Flood Reconstruction – Sindh Province Village Housing and Infrastructure

Project Summary

Reconstruction of sanitation, wells, village wall, community spaces and other infrastructure in tandem with the reconstruction of homes destroyed by flooding in two villages in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The project was started in January 2011 in the villages of Swaleh Satho Goth Angario and Nodo Baran and completed in July 2011. Architecture for Humanity’s Karachi Chapter provided design and construction expertise to Karachi Relief Trust.

Number of housing units: 29 (Goth Angario) 12 (Nodo Baran)
Additional infrastructure: common court, livestock leveling floor, village periphery wall, elevated water tank, septic tanks, seepage pits, surface tanks, sanitation and water supplies, planting of indigenous trees
Beneficiaries: 300
Total grant: $42,000

Read the FINAL REPORT created in July 2011 for more detail.


In the summer of 2010, many provinces in Pakistan were affected by enormous flooding conditions. The floods caused the death of 1,600 people and some 20 million citizens were displaced by this natural disaster. These devastating floods have had a serious impact on an already vulnerable population. It is estimated that, at one point, one fifth of the country’s total land area was underwater. Much of the farming land, housing and infrastructures were completely destroyed, leaving millions of people living in precarious, sub-standard conditions. The population has since struggled with severe food shortages, lack of sanitation and access to clean, drinking water. Funds provided by Architecture for Humanity through a grant from Google addressed this acute issue.

View Pakistan Flood Rebuilding Grant Program in a larger map

About the Karachi Chapter and the Karachi Relief Trust

The Architecture for Humanity Karachi Chapter was organized in the early 2010, right before the flooding took place. Chapter members include architects, engineers and site planners. All chapter members are experienced professionals who have already done extensive reconstruction projects following the 2005 earthquake.

The Karachi Relief Trust, based in Karachi as well, is a disaster mananagement voluntary organization that was established in 2007 to provide relief to the people affected in the provinces of Balochistan and Sindh by Cyclone Yemyin. In 2008, the organization mobilized to help the victims of the Quetta Earthquake by building shelters for the displaced population. In 2009, the organization assisted the internally displaced people of Swabi by providing relief for certain perishable daily necessities.

The Architecture for Humanity Karachi Chapter and the Karachi Relief Trust have been working together since August 2010. Apart from short term relief efforts, the collaborative effort has yielding involvement in rebuilding the built environment of selected flood affected villages.

Project Information

The grant funding was directly applied to the improvement of two selected villages located in the Sindh Province (Nodo Baran and Goth Angario). These villages were selected because they were severely damaged by the floods. The population lives in deplorable conditions, with minimum or no infrastructure, water or sanitation facilities. Nodo Baran is a community of small-scale fishermen, residing on government owned land. The average income of the villagers is $46 per month. Goth Angario is a village of field workers, with an average monthly income of $69. The village land is owned by the local families and has existed for the last 45 years.

Specifically, the project included the building of communal spaces, village boundary and containment, hard/soft landscaping, sanitation infrastructure and water supply improvements as well as design services for housing reconstruction.

Peripheral mud walls around the villages were constructed and these walls were supplemented with local shrubs to limit future encroachments. Hard landscaping incorporated the use of indigenous materials, including small flagstone pedestrian pathways and compacted earth for livestock paths. Soft landscaping included various local trees.

Communal spaces were central to the overall design and served as social spaces for community interaction and extended family units. These courts were proposed in mud plaster with rice husk finish over compacted earth. The periphery of the courts included a stabilized mud wall constructed of rammed earth technology with stabilized mud, cement and straw plaster finish.

With respect to sanitation and water supply, existing hand pumps were converted to electric driven suction pumps (where possible) for filling surface reservoir. Overhead tanks were installed for even water distribution in the homes. Independent elevated storage tanks within the toilets were also installed to improve and regulate water distribution. For sanitation purposes, seepage/soak pits and septic tanks were incorporated to collect soil and waste from the toilets. Effluent from the septic tank discharged into seepage pits through gravity flow.

The goal was to involve the local communities to partake in the reconstruction process.

Funding Support
In order to address reconstruction efforts for the exterior development and sanitation improvements of the villages, funds have come from a coalition of partners including Architecture for Humanity, Google and the Live4Pakistan concert, an online fund raiser developed by Bubbletank and Virgin Unite

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